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Ruskin Felix Consulting

Ruskin Felix Consulting

Circular Economy and Business

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What is a circular economy and circular business model?

As the earth’s resources are limited the idea of a circular economy has become popular as a sustainable approach to minimize waste and optimize resource usage. This regenerative system emphasizes the prolonged use of products, components, and materials, striving to establish a closed-loop system that eliminates waste and conserves resources through innovative design. The circular economy is a promising solution to today’s environmental challenges.

The circular economy model has three key principles: design out waste and pollution, keep products and materials in use, and regenerate natural systems. It aims to differentiate economic growth from the consumption of finite natural resources by implementing a restorative and regenerative approach.

A circular business model is a model that incorporates these principles into business operations, supply chains, and product design. It involves creating value through resource efficiency, reducing waste, and designing products for reuse or recycling. It is a way of doing business that focuses on sustainability, creating economic, social, and environmental benefits.

4 Principle of Circular economy

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To move towards a circular economy, it is crucial to begin by cutting down on waste. This means decreasing the quantity of waste produced in the initial stages by utilizing fewer raw materials and refining production techniques to reduce food waste. By adopting eco-design principles companies can diminish waste by designing products that can be dismantled and recycled. Minimizing waste leads to lower environmental impact, cost savings, and a better image for the company.


The following step towards achieving a circular economy is to reuse products and materials to the greatest extent feasible. This requires designing products that can be reused and establishing closed-loop supply chains. For instance, companies can create products that can be readily restored or fixed and sold as used goods. Furthermore, businesses can execute rental or leasing models to extend the life of their products. By reusing products and materials companies can decrease expenses, decrease waste, and generate new sources of income.

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The third step towards accomplishing a circular economy is to recycle materials that are unfit for reuse. This requires designing products with recyclability in mind and building efficient recycling systems. Companies can execute closed-loop recycling systems where materials are gathered, categorized, and treated to create novel products. As an example, plastic bottles can be recycled to manufacture new bottles or clothing made from recycled fibers. By recycling materials businesses can reduce waste, preserve resources, and create fresh economic prospects.


The last step towards achieving a circular economy is to recuperate energy and other resources from waste that cannot be reused or recycled. This involves employing waste-to-energy technologies to produce heat, electricity, or biofuels from waste. Companies can also retrieve nutrients from organic waste by utilizing it as fertilizer. By recuperating energy and other resources, businesses can reduce their environmental impact, generate new sources of revenue, and contribute to a more sustainable future.


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Linear economy vs circular economy

A linear economy follows a sequence where resources are extracted, processed, and used to create products that are sold to customers. Once the product has fulfilled its purpose, it is discarded as waste. This is often called the ‘take-make-dispose’ model. In linear economy resources are viewed as expendable, and waste is perceived as an inescapable outcome of production and consumption. The linear economy is identified by elevated levels of waste, inefficiency, and environmental decline.

On the other hand, unlike the linear model that follows a take-make-dispose approach, the circular model of economy is a restorative framework that focuses on conserving resources and promoting sustainability. Its main objective is to maximize resource utilization and minimize waste generation by adopting the 4Rs principle – reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover. By employing innovative and strategic designs, the circular economy aims to create a closed-loop system, which eliminates waste and preserves resources. This model is distinguished by its high efficiency levels, minimal waste production, and reduced environmental impact.

How circular economy can help businesses become more sustainable?

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By offering a more sustainable and resourceful alternative to the linear economy, the circular economy is revolutionizing the business landscape. Companies can embrace circular economy principles and methods thereby promoting sustainability and minimizing their environmental impact. Adopting circular economy practices can enhance their efficiency, reduce their waste production, and help to conserve resources.

Here are some ways the circular economy can help businesses become more sustainable:

Reduced waste

The principles of a circular economy urge businesses to lessen waste by decreasing the number of raw materials utilized in their manufacturing processes and refining production procedures which helps businesses minimize their impact on the environment, cut down expenses, and enhance their reputation by lowering waste generation.

Resource efficiency

The goal of a circular economy is to maximize the value of resources by extending the lifespan of materials through reusing, repairing, and recycling. This helps businesses to cut down on expenses, boost efficiency, and create fresh revenue channels by finding new uses for waste materials.

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Closed-loop supply chains

A closed-loop supply chain is the backbone of the circular economy where materials are reused and recycled instead of being thrown away. By embracing closed-loop supply chains businesses can significantly decrease waste, save resources and carbon emissions, and create economic value by extracting the full potential of materials.


The circular economy is fueling innovation and inspiring businesses to create new sustainable and regenerative technologies, products, and services. By embracing innovation companies can gain a competitive edge, enhance efficiency, and play a role in shaping a more sustainable future.

Social responsibility

The circular economy highlights social responsibility and urges businesses to prioritize the social and environmental impacts of their operations. By implementing circular economy principles companies can showcase their dedication to sustainability, improve their reputation, and appeal to socially aware consumers.


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Increased demand for sustainable products

As the world progresses consumers are becoming more conscious of how their choices affect the environment and are in search of eco-friendly products. According to a survey conducted by Accenture in 2020, 60% of the participants said they were inclined towards purchasing environmentally sustainable products. The growing demand for these sustainable products has motivated companies to focus on sustainability and implement circular practices.

In response to growing consumer demand for sustainable products businesses are adopting circular practices and creating eco-friendly items. For instance, Patagonia, H&M, and Interface have implemented circular programs to recycle used goods and utilize recycled materials in their production processes. By catering to customers’ desire for eco-friendly products these companies are promoting the adoption of circular practices.

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Educating consumers about the benefits of the circular economy

Marketing and advertising can serve as a means of educating consumers about how circular economy works. Companies can advertise their circular programs and the advantages of implementing circular practices through marketing campaigns. Interface, for instance, promotes its ReEntry program as a closed-loop recycling initiative that minimizes waste and preserves resources.

Collaborating with sustainability organizations is an effective approach for businesses to educate consumers about the circular economy. By teaming up companies can promote circular practices and enlighten consumers about the advantages of adopting a circular economy.


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Here are some potential economic benefits of the circular economy:

Cost Savings

The circular economy can reduce the costs of production and consumption by minimizing waste, reusing materials, and using renewable resources. By adopting circular practices companies can save money on raw materials, energy, and waste disposal.

Revenue Growth

The circular economy can create new revenue streams by transforming waste into valuable resources. For e.g., companies can repurpose waste materials into new products or sell them to other companies that can use them which can create new revenue opportunities and help companies generate additional income.

Reduced Environmental Costs

The circular economy can reduce the environmental costs of production and consumption by minimizing waste, reducing pollution, and using renewable resources through reducing their environmental impact companies can avoid costly fines and improve their brand reputation.

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Job creation and economic growth

Ways in which the circular economy can contribute to job creation and economic growth:

New Business Opportunities: The circular economy can create new business opportunities such as recycling, repair, and remanufacturing. These businesses require new skills and expertise which can create new job opportunities for workers in vulnerable communities.

Increased Demand for Sustainable Products: As consumers become more aware of the environmental impact of their purchases there is a growing demand for sustainable products. This can create new job opportunities in industries that produce sustainable products such as renewable energy, green construction, and organic agriculture.

Increased Efficiency: The circular economy can increase the efficiency of resource use, which can lead to increased productivity and economic growth. By reducing waste and maximizing resource use companies can operate more efficiently and create more value from their resources.


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The circular economy has the potential to contribute significantly to the achievement of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Here are some of the ways in which the circular economy can help achieve the SDGs:

Responsible Consumption and Production: SDG 12 strives to establish sustainable consumption and production patterns are strongly associated with the circular economy. The circular economy can support this objective by advocating for resource efficiency, waste reduction, and circular material usage through this it can assist in achieving the goal of SDG 12.

Decent Work and Economic Growth: The circular economy can create new jobs and economic opportunities in areas such as recycling, repair, and refurbishment which can contribute to more inclusive economic growth and help achieve SDG 8.

Sustainable Cities and Communities: By promoting local production and consumption it can reduce dependence on global supply chains and support the growth of local businesses which can help achieve SDG 11.

Climate Action: The circular economy can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions by promoting resource efficiency and waste reduction. This can contribute to the achievement of SDG 13 which aims to take urgent action to combat climate change.

Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure: The circular economy can drive innovation in product design, material science, digital technology and business models. This can contribute to the development of more sustainable and efficient industrial processes and infrastructure which can help achieve SDG 9.


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Roles that policy and regulation can play in circular economy are as follows:

Incentivizing Circular Business Models: Enacting policies and regulations can motivate businesses to embrace circular business models by providing them with incentives. For e.g., tax breaks, financial grants, and subsidies can incentivize businesses to invest in circular technologies and processes.

Promoting Sustainable Consumption: Policy and regulation play a crucial role in promoting sustainable consumption patterns by setting standards for products and services. For instance, regulations can mandate that products are designed with durability, repairability, and recyclability in mind. This approach ensures that products are made to last longer, can be easily repaired, and are more recyclable contributing to a more sustainable economy.

Encouraging Resource Efficiency: Policy and regulation can encourage resource efficiency by setting targets for waste reduction and recycling. For example, regulations can require businesses to report on their waste generation and recycling rates.

Supporting Innovation: Policy and regulation can support innovation by providing funding and support for research and development which can help drive innovation in areas such as material science, product design, and business models.

Creating Markets for Secondary Materials: Policy and regulation can create markets for secondary materials by promoting the use of recycled and repurposed materials. For e.g., regulations can require government agencies to use recycled materials in their procurement contracts for toxic materials.

Challenges faced in implementing circular economy policies and regulations

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Resistance to Change: Circular economy policies and regulations can face resistance from businesses and consumers who are accustomed to linear economic models which can create a barrier to the adoption of circular business models and sustainable consumption patterns.

Lack of Coordination: Implementing circular economy policies and regulations can require coordination across multiple sectors and levels of government which can be challenging especially in decentralized governance systems.

Limited Resources: Implementing circular economy policies and regulations can require significant resources in terms of funding, expertise, and infrastructure which can be challenging especially for smaller businesses and low-income countries.

Enforcement Challenges: Implementing circular economy policies and regulations can be challenging due to enforcement issues which can include challenges related to monitoring, reporting, and enforcement mechanisms.

Lack of Awareness: Implementing circular economy policies and regulations can be challenging if stakeholders are not aware of the benefits of the circular economy. This can create a barrier to the adoption of circular business models and sustainable consumption patterns.


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The circular economy is changing the business landscape by driving a shift towards sustainable and resource-efficient business models. By prioritizing waste reduction, resource efficiency, and circularity, businesses can reduce their environmental impact while creating new economic opportunities. This shift is also changing consumer expectations and preferences with more consumers demanding sustainable products and services.

Ruskin Felix Consulting helps in developing sustainable solutions and strategies for businesses. We help clients transform, grow, and operate while fostering trust through assurance with our services and solutions, which are made possible by data and technology. Please feel free to contact us at

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